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Gaslighting Warning Signs

Gaslighting is a form of manipulation that causes a person to doubt their own beliefs, sanity, or memory. Learning about gaslighting warning signs can strengthen resistance to this harmful manipulation.

Common gaslighting tactics include denial, minimization, and threatening. Identifying these behaviors is often the first step in a victim’s rebuilding their self-confidence.

The Gaslighting Warning Signs worksheet describes eight gaslighting tactics, along with examples. Use this handout to start a discussion on what gaslighting is, the emotional toll it can take on victims, and how people can protect themselves from this type of manipulation.

For more information on gaslighting, read our What is Gaslighting? article.

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1. Abramson, K. (2014). Turning up the lights on gaslighting. Philosophical perspectives, 28, 1-30.

2. DiGiulio, S. (2018). What is gaslighting? And how do you know if it's happening to you? Retrieved August 2, 2022, from

3. Harris, M., & MacNeill, N. (2021). Controlling behaviours: Gaslighting strategies that are developed at a school age. Education Today. https://www.

4. Johnson, V. E., Nadal, K. L., Sissoko, D. G., & King, R. (2021). “It’s not in your head”: Gaslighting,‘splaining, victim blaming, and other harmful reactions to microaggressions. Perspectives on psychological science, 16(5), 1024-1036.

5. Raypole, C. (2022, June 21). 8 ways to deal with gaslighting. Healthline. Retrieved August 2, 2022, from

6. Spear, A. D. (2020). Gaslighting, confabulation, and epistemic innocence. Topoi, 39(1), 229-241.

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